The following post is from a presentation I gave at last year’s Bulgarian Worldview Conference. I have been promising several people for some time now that I would post it. My apologies for the terrible delay. The second talk will follow shortly in a separate post. I have used some of this material already in another post, Societies Built on Sand.
The Abduction of Europa
Several years ago in a study of prophecy and end-times madness, I came across a website making the standard claims about an imminent anti-Christ, the “rapture” around the corner, and using various news headlines to persuade us that current events fulfill end-times prophecies and it’s all downhill from here. I don’t believe that, but one picture I found on that website provoked me into another study, and that was a picture from outside the European Union Parliament building in Strasbourg, of a woman riding a bull [slide 2]. The dispensational website wrongly said this was a fulfillment of Revelation 17:3 concerning the woman riding the scarlet beast. I knew that was nonsense since the beast in Revelation 17 has seven heads and ten horns, and this statue is clearly of a standard bovine. The statue, of course, actually depicts the ancient Greek myth of the Abduction of Europa by Zeus. This of course has nothing to do with Revelation 17, but it does raise an important question: why does the EU see fit to display this image as a symbol of itself? The answer to that question involves many interwoven ideas, all centering on the relationship between humanism and tyranny, and I would like to show you some of that tapestry in the few moments we have together. It is very important to understand this symbol in the context of the culture war between Christian law and liberty on the one hand, and the anti-biblical forces of socialism and State power on the other.
So what exactly is this myth? For the few of you who may not already know, the myth of the Abduction of Europa goes like this: Zeus looked down saw Europa, the daughter of king Phoenix, fell in love with her, and then transformed himself into a beautiful bull, and came before her to admire. Ovid writes,
Then she became less shy, he gave his breast to her caressing hands
and let her garland even his horns with new-plucked flowers. The princess,
innocent on whom she sat, climbed to his back; slowly the god stepped out
into the shallows of the beach and … took to sea,
swimming against full tide, the girl his captured prize; she fearful,
turned to shoreward, set one hand on his broad back, the other held
one horn, her dress behind her fluttered in the wind.
Hesiod’s version makes it clear that Zeus took her to Crete where he held her captive and forced her to produce his children. It was an example of the debauchery and cruelty common among the Greek gods.
But from this story of a divine-king defying morality and taking whatever he wants when he wants, Europe gets its name. Naming is very important in Scripture: it’s a symbol of dominion. He who rules, names. This is why after giving Adam dominion over the earth, God brought him all of the animals for him to name. Adam also named his wife. He who has dominion, names. This does not mean that he who names has dominion.
So we have this statue placed at the entrance to the European Parliament building. It came with much irony, therefore, when I found the only scholarly book on the topic by the only guy I know of who has traced the topic of Europe’s name. The author, Peter H. Gommers, formerly worked in the European Commission’s social affairs department. His book Europe—What’s in a Name? chronicles every reference to the myth of Europa, beginning with ancient sources and continuing through the modern era [slide 3]. The surprise comes in the book’s Foreword, where a former European commissioner to the European Union opened by making a point to deny any connection between the myth of Europa and the current political agenda. This man, a former president of the Flemmish socialist party, says that the name “Europe” (and therefore its history) plays “no role in the ongoing discussions concerning Europe and the European Union.” I find that hard to believe considering that the European Parliament building features this [slide 4] 3.6 meter (11.8 ft)-tall modernized sculpture of the Abduction of Europa at its front entrance. A separate sculpture of the same theme stands just as prominently at the entrance of the European Council building in Brussels [slide 5]. One would think, just from these two prominent displays, that the EU had from early on consciously embraced the idea of Abducting Europe as a description of their agenda.
And this only begins to touch on the proliferation of that concept in official EU propaganda. There continues a wide dissemination of the image on coins, stamps, medallions, sculptures, print media, art, etc., throughout the EU [slides 6–18].
And it is worse than simple abduction. The myth involves a god-king abducting the daughter of another sovereign, a Phoenician king. This is one sovereign using illegal, immoral, subversive means to trample the rights of another sovereign in order to expand and solidify his own political power. It’s all about—and it has always been all about—a transfer of sovereignty.
One of the architects of the EU was French foreign minister Robert Schuman. In May of 1950 he announced the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. He said, “The pooling of coal and steel production should immediately provide for the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe.” It was a “first step” toward even greater centralization of power and control over the economy. It was a Trojan horse from day one. It’s no wonder that Margaret Thatcher in the UK as late as 1990 refused to accept the common currency and central bank—she knew it was a Trojan horse to attack national sovereignty, and she called it, “a back door” to a federal Europe. We must take the same stand she took, to stand on principle and refuse compromise on the issues of sovereignty and money.
Of course the Trojan horse episode produced one of the great lines in Western literature: Timeo danaos et dona ferentes, which we translate as “Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.” In the story, it was one of the Trojan priests who said this, fearing that something was not right about the situation. His first words are even more memorable, though don’t receive the attention. He said, “Equo ne credite!” which means, “Don’t trust the horse!” Well, they trusted the horse, and they got ambushed by the Greeks. It’s one of the few helpful lessons we learn from classical mythology, and no one ever really teaches it: that classical culture was debauched, a clear example of the depravity of man in social action.
The Humanist Delusion
Humanists parade ancient Greek culture today as the cradle of western civilization, democracy, philosophy, freedom, blah blah blah. They don’t really tell the full story of ancient Greece. Two of the most defining characteristics were the denigration of family and the glorification of war. These depraved commitments drove their societies to ultimate collapse.
They glorify the philosophy of Socrates who really provided little advance to the history of ethics: his greatest philosophical legacy lies in his skepticism creating a moral paradox and in his apology before the court. His paradox derived from a question about the origin of morality. Philosophy teachers for 2500 years have been treating it as some profound thought-provoking dilemma, when in reality, for Christians, it’s an embarrassingly easy question. And for this legacy he stood condemned before the court for denying the local gods and corrupting the youth of Athens, and his defense artfully maneuvered the charges, insulted the politicians as dishonest, and insisted the court should rather reward him like a superstar Olympian with free meals for the rest of his life for the services he’d rendered as a sage. It was the definition of hubris. Meanwhile, he had a family with three sons, two of them young, as he offered this self-absorbed glorification of himself, which guaranteed that his family would become widows and orphans.
The denigration of family in that culture involves widespread homosexuality, denigration of women, citizenship. Homosexuality was rampant, especially among young athletes. Youth and beauty emerged as the avenues to civic greatness. Yet they forbid women from even viewing the athletic events, so that it encouraged what was already latent: men admired young boys and young boys naturally aspired to the men. The great historian of the Greek culture, Jacob Burckhardt, concluded that, already in middle Greece, before the philosophers arrived historically, that homosexuality “seems indeed positively innate in the Greek spirit, and takes on an ideal aspect.”
Not only were women forbidden to view the beautiful young males, but they also had to keep silent as their men kept regular courtesans. Marriage was only important because legally it was required for children to be considered citizens. But this was merely a legal formality: extramarital relationships occurred as part of regular life, and married women in general suffered ridicule and marginalization. Courtesans—that is, prostitutes who were educated and had a reputation for conversation and wit—became the only women who mattered in society; a legitimate wife or daughter gained favor only through silence and submission.
And this was all before it got bad. Only a century later, during the fourth Century BC—and this includes the period after Socrates and Plato on into Aristotle, the height of Greek wisdom, allegedly—homosexuality lost all moral pretence. It no longer pertained to beauty and youth as abstract ideals, it devolved into what it really was from day one: the gratification of sensuality and lust. Courtesans grew even more popular and honored. And yet the privilege of these “others”—as they were called—society considered not immoral but part of the luxurious life. This worsened further during the so-called great Hellenistic age after Alexander the Great: homosexuality grew common and openly accepted. It had no pretense at all of love or social life, but fell to complete individual gratification, and their poets began the genre of so-called “boy-poems.” In short, it was a gradually, until completely, depraved culture.
We simply live in a delusion in the West, and it is not as that popular British atheist has suggested, a “God delusion,” but rather a humanist delusion. We have deluded ourselves—and Christians have for some reason accepted—into accepting that western civilization thrived because of classical culture, when in fact it was only Christian moral values that allowed it to last and to thrive when it did. That great 19th-century scholar, Fustel de Coulanges, wrote a very important book, The Ancient City, in which he openly targeted this classical delusion. He introduces the book by saying, “Having imperfectly observed the institutions of the ancient city, men have dreamed of reviving them among us. They have deceived themselves about the liberty of the ancients.…”
Coulanges relates just how tyrannized by superstition that ancient world really was; he describes the daily life of the average person:
He finds [in his house] his worship and his gods. His fire is a god; the walls, the doors, the threshold are gods; the boundary marks which surround his field are also gods. The tomb is an altar, and his ancestors are divine beings.
Each one of his daily actions is a rite; his whole day belongs to his religion. Morning and evening he invokes his fire, his [household gods], and his ancestors; in leaving and entering his house he addresses prayers to them.…
He leaves his house, and can hardly take a step without meeting some sacred object—either a chapel, or a place formerly struck by lightning, or a tomb; sometimes he must step back and pronounce a prayer; sometimes he must turn his eyes and cover his face, to avoid the sight of some ill-boding object.
Every day he sacrifices in his house, every month in his [parish], several months a year with his gens or tribe. Above all these gods, he must offer worship to those of the city. There are in Rome more gods than citizens.
He offers sacrifices to thank the gods; he offers them, and by far the greater number, to appease their wrath. One day he figures in a procession, dancing.… Another day he conducts chariots, in which lie statues of the divinities. Another time… a table is set in a street, and loaded with provisions, upon beds lie statues of the gods, and every Roman passes bowing.…
There is a festival for seed-time, one for harvest, and one for the pruning.… Before corn has reached the ear, the Roman has offered more than ten sacrifices, and has invoked some ten divinities for the success of his harvest. He has, above all, a multitude of festivals for the dead, because he is afraid of them.
He never leaves his own house without looking to see if any bird of bad augury appears. There are words which he dares not pronounce for his life. If he experiences some desire, he inscribes his wish upon a tablet which he paces at the feet of the statue of a divinity.
At every moment he consults the gods, and wishes to know their will. He finds all his resolutions in the entrails of victims, in the flight of birds, in the warning of the lightning.…
He steps out of his house always with the right foot first. He has his hair cut only during a full moon. He carries amulets upon his person. He covers the walls of his house with magic inscriptions against fire. He knows of formulas for avoiding sickness, and of others for curing it; but he must repeat them twenty-seven times, and spit in a certain fashion at each repetition.…
This Roman whom we present here is not the man of the people, the feeble-minded man whom misery and ignorance have made superstitious. We are speaking of the patrician, the noble, the powerful, and rich man.
The Latin poet Horace expressed the subjection of the rulers to ancestor worship:
Though innocent, Roman, you will pay for the sins
Of your fathers until you restore the crumbling temples
And shrines of the gods
And their filthy smoke-blackened images.
You rule because you hold yourself inferior to the gods.
Make this the beginning and the end of all things.
Neglect of the gods has brought many ills
To the sorrowing land of Hesperia.
That was the Romans, and the Greeks lived no more freely. They practiced all of the same superstitions: ancestor worship, augury, divining animal entrails, unlucky days, lucky words, oracles, obligatory rituals, etc. Coulanges exposes the modern view of the rational Greek as a delusion:
The Athenian whom we picture to ourselves as so inconstant, so capricious, such a free-thinker, has, on the contrary, a singular respect for ancient traditions and ancient rites. His principal religion… is the worship of ancestors and heroes. He worships the dead and fears them.
With this fear and subjection and superstition at root in every house and institution from the common man to the highest courts, Classical civilization developed not freedom but tyranny. Like every society, it was rooted in a religion as a source of law, a dominion that names the legal boundaries of society. Every society has this; it’s inescapable. The question will always be, who is the god? A man-made mythology, or a group of men, or the One True Almighty Creator?
Ancient humanism as well as modern humanism both answer the god question in ways that define the State as the highest dominion. Ancient humanism declared their rulers, mere men, to be gods. To serve the Caesar was to serve god. Modern humanism denies God or redefines Him in ways that make Him irrelevant, and the State becomes the highest incarnation of the will of man, and thus the source of law and provision. In either case, the State becomes the god, and that god derives his laws from the fallen heart of man. All of this contradicts the biblical system in which the State is merely one institution under God, and secondary in importance to both the family and the church. The State in the biblical sense should only exist to enforce contracts and protect life and property.
As Horace has put it, the classical rulers ruled in subjection to their ancestor gods, and actually they themselves claimed to be their divine descendants. This resulted in a society in which the rulers saw it as their job strictly to enforce rituals so that the gods would never pour wrath upon the city. The people below them live as secondary citizens, their lives, liberties, and fortunes expendable, and all subjugated to the life of the State. They had no independence: their bodies belonged to the State, they were bound to defend it and the State could, and often did, commit human sacrifices for different purposes. His property and money the State could confiscate at any time, including the women’s jewelry, business’ assets, creditors’ claims, and farmers’ produce.
The State controlled when and whom you could marry, what clothes you wore, what kind of wine you could drink, who could drink it, how you could travel; it could force exposure of children and even infanticide. And even those two great Greek philosophers so renowned for their powers of reason and love of wisdom, Plato and Aristotle, both incorporated infanticide as a law—advocating death for deformed babies.
The State thus maintained absolute control from cradle to grave, and this of course included education. In fact, it focuses on it. Sparta forced children into education separate from their fathers. In Athens children walked in rank and file to school, military style, no matter the weather. They accepted it as public duty. Plato justified State dominance of education: “Parents ought not to be free to send or not to send their children to the masters whom the city has chosen; for the children belong less to their parents than to the city.” The State reserved the right, further, to forbid any teaching apart from its own. Humanistic States are inherently hostile to home schooling because education is an issue of dominion.
These civilizations, had no freedom, not in life, not in education, not in religion, not in business, not in family. They not only did not enjoy freedom, Coulanges concludes, “They had no idea of it.” And while his overall explanation is badly deficient on the idea of the source of law and church-state relations, Coulanges does expose the fact that it was only the victory of Christianity that allowed for the type of freedom we can enjoy today, because Christianity simultaneously freed men from base, pagan religion, and broke Caesar’s claim to divinity in social life. Christ, he says, “proclaims that religion is no longer the state, and that to obey Caesar is no longer the same thing as to obey God.” That, coming from a scholar influenced by Enlightenment thought, says quite a bit.
Reform or Collapse?
And yet Caesar had to collapse before freedom truly had a chance. Caesar continually grew in power, and as the State grew it taxed more heavily. It taxed the people to pay for wars until the taxation finally destroyed the middle class and the farmers. Then the State began social welfare distributions in order to maintain favor with the people. It bought them off and entertained them with bread and circuses—that is, welfare programs and professional football. The local farmer, out of a job and broke, hired himself out to the State as a soldier. This goes on today.
As the money for wars, bread, and circuses ran out, the State inevitably turned to debasing the currency. They started by issuing smaller-sized coins with the same face value. Then they began debasing the metal: mixing in copper or tin with the silver. Under Nero, it was moderate: coins were still 94% silver. By AD 100 under Trajan in was 85%. By AD 218 it was 43%. By the time of Rome’s collapse an allegedly silver coin contained only 0.2% silver. And no one would then accept them. Society collapsed and ushered in the Dark Ages.
Some modern scholars have begun to theorize about certain important features of social change and decline. Nassim Taleb, a best-selling author who currently teaches at both New York University and Oxford, has popularized the idea that most of the great climactic changes in modern history have been what he calls “black swan events”—unguided, unpredicted, and unpredictable. More recently, Harvard financial historian Niall Ferguson has lectured and written on the collapse of great empires in history. While I disagree with some ideas of each of these men, their contributions share one important theme: that of monumental changes in societies happening not gradually, but suddenly.
Our savior, of course, taught the lesson more simply, more accurately, and without all of the academic baggage:
Everyone then who hears these words of mine and does them will be like a wise man who built his house on the rock. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat on that house, but it did not fall, because it had been founded on the rock. And everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell, and great was the fall of it (Matt. 7:24–27).
This carries two important features not widely discussed by our experts, but vital to our understanding of what goes on around us as we speak. First, the social collapse does not primarily originate with politics, economics, government, etc. Failure in these areas arises merely as a symptom of the real problem. Social collapse begins with a failure of ethics. Jesus says it pertains to “everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them.” Ethics first, then politics. Secondly, while social collapse can indeed come suddenly and from unforeseen triggers, it does not come randomly, nor do we have to live constantly on the “edge of chaos,” as Ferguson suggests. Rather, as Christ says, the collapse comes due to a common event—a storm, a flood—and only happens because the seeds of collapse existed from day one, not in the storm, but in the structure. Collapse loomed inevitable because of a faulty foundation in sand. A society established by ignoring God’s commandments will inevitably and predictably collapse at some point. It will happen; it is a law of the universe, of the Word of God.
It took centuries to happen, but that very Ancient Rome that collapsed had the seeds of its own collapse within it from day one: false religion, fear, lust, envy, war, fraud. It was a society built on sand.
Yet today I hear these appeals to Zeus and Europa coming from these leftist schemers at the EU, and I have to say, the idea fits pretty well. It’s a group of rulers who think they’re like gods literally abducting society and fathering tyranny. It’s a system of government built on theft through taxation, manipulation of currency, and buying favor through social welfare. It is a movement that rejects God’s word; it is built on sand. It will collapse, and great will be the fall of it.
We are already seeing the failures of a fiat money and deficit spending welfare system, just as Rome’s currency failed as the government mounted massive debts. This is what Prof. Niall Ferguson has wonderfully documented for us in the following charts:
1) [Slide 19] At current rates, the so-called “PIGS” will owe 300 to 400 percent more in debt than they can produce annually by 2040. Even with drastic austerity measures, the number grows to 150 to 200 percent. Of course either scenario is beyond unsustainable.
2) [Slide 20] The bad news, the US and UK are in the even worse shape: rampant deficits.
3) [Slide 21] By 2040, it will require 22 percent of all US federal revenue, just to pay the interest on our debts. The rest of the world [Slide 22] is the same, with few exceptions.
And how do these debts get paid? At some point, you run out of people from whom you can borrow more. And at some point, no one will lend you more. So the burden falls to the central banks to hold the debt. But this means merely kicking the can down the road, and at some point the can grows too big to kick. The debts have to be serviced or defaulted on. And tyrants will use the crises as times to expand the powers of government, when the real answer is savings, thrift, honest money, and losses for the lenders who never should have leveraged the way they did to begin with.
But the minute you start talking about thrift and honest money and ending welfare programs, the beneficiaries of those programs go mad: they’re entitled to these things! You tell the Greek government workers that they will have a mere 10% pay cut and an end to extra vacation time, and they riot in the streets, burn down buildings and kill people. Teachers in Wisconsin are now rioting in the streets over a tiny percentage change in their salaries which are far above the state’s average.
After Prof. Ferguson’s talk ended he fielded questions for several minutes. The first question came from one of the sponsors of the talk, Peter G. Peterson. Peterson has been warning about the mounting debt problem in the US Social Security system, our old-age insurance system. He was warned of its impending problem for two decades, and its default is in the near future. He asked something very important:
[S]omething rather profound has happened in the American culture, its values, its sense of its future, its obligations to its children and grandchildren.… To use John Maynard Keynes, our propensity to consume and borrow was very well developed. We started saving a lot less. We started developing a kind of entitlement endowment in which we’re entitled to it now and let somebody else pay for it, and so forth. So what I’m asking you is: Have you thought much about what the underlying changes are in our culture, in our values, in the way we think, in our morality…? Because we keep saying it’s a political problem; I’m not sure we’ve enough emphasis on the fact that it’s a problem among our citizens, in our culture.
I was not entirely satisfied with Ferguson’s answer, which I won’t cover here, but I was greatly satisfied that someone actually asked the right question. The problem lies in the compounding of lust, envy, lies, gratification, devaluing of the family, dependence on State bread, and waste of time in leisure and entertainment. These things are a perfect recipe for inevitable collapse.
God’s Will or Man’s?
Remember a key point in the story of abduction of Europa: Zeus did not grab her and run, he seduced her with his beauty and gentleness. She first decided to get on the bull before he surprised her by bolting into the sea. She gave in. The threat of tyranny always comes in a package we desire—welfare, benefits, care, safety, employment, greatness—all things we desire more of in our hearts. Friends, tyranny starts in human hearts. It is our choice whether it will thrive in our homes or whether we discipline ourselves according to a higher standard. The answer to the abduction of Europa is to refuse the ride. Don’t trust the Horse! Don’t ride the Bull!
St. Augustine writing early in the fifth century, condemned the story of the Abduction of Europa, but condemned the people for creating plays about it, and applauding and celebrating as the crime was acted out, and for doing so as a honor and appeasement to those same gods. He condemned the Greek religions and societies for such behavior as a general rule: “it is impossible to tell how much wickedness must have been taken for granted in men’s hearts that they should be able to listen to such lies with patience. And yet they willingly accepted them.…”
Early Christian apologists and Church Fathers constantly criticized Greek and Roman immorality by first criticizing the underlying worldview—the gods of the mythologies and theaters. Jupiter, Justin Martyr railed, “was both a parricide and the son of a parricide, and that being overcome by the love of base and shameful pleasures, he came into Ganymede and those many women whom he had violated and that his sons did like actions.” He later criticized those who actually were “imitating Jupiter and the other gods in sodomy and shameless [acts] with woman.” He asked these worshippers, “Why are you, being a Greek, indignant at your son when he imitates Jupiter, and rises against you and defrauds you of your own wife? Why do you count him your enemy, and yet worship one that is like him?”
There is another Greek myth we should consider. It is the story of Zeus’ father, Cronos. Cronos assumed power of the universe by assassinating his father; it was then prophesied to Cronos that one of his own sons would destroy him. So in fear and lust for power, Cronos (known as Saturn to the Romans) determined to eat every one of his children as they were born. So out of depraved lusts, he destroyed his heritage, his children, in order that he could maintain his lifestyle. If the EU wishes to find in mythology a symbol of its leftist culture, I suggest that even better than the Abduction of Europa, they should use Saturn devouring his children, for that’s what they are doing (as are the rest of the western debt-ridden world).
The problem is at root not political, it is religious, it is ethical. And the solution is not greater political alliances, central banks, and forced transfer of wealth; the answer will certainly not arise through some dream of a centralized EU. We have had enough of civilizations built on the sand of human depravity and tyranny; we need cultures and governments built of the solid rock of new creation and God’s law. Protect private property, enforce contracts, protect the family. The answer begins in your home, in your bedroom making babies (and I haven’t even mentioned the birthrate crisis, of which you are all well aware, I’m sure). It begins in taking personal responsibility, in your honest work, thrift, saving, education of your children in a godly way of life, and business.
Only by a return to Christian ethics can we save civilization. In my next presentation, I will talk more about our calling to apply those ethics to every area of life.
 Karel van Miert, “Foreword,” in Peter H. Gommers, Europe—What’s in a Name? (Brussels: Leuven University Press, 2001), 5.
 Karel van Miert, “Foreword,” in Peter H. Gommers, Europe—What’s in a Name? (Brussels: Leuven University Press, 2001), 5.
 Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, ed. by Oswyn Murray, trans. by Sheila Stern (New York: St. Martins Press, 1998) 199.
 Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, 200.
 Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, 251.
 Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, 340–1.
 Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, 362.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City: A Study on the Religion, Laws, and Institutions of Greece and Rome, trans. by Willard Small (Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956 [1864), 11.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 211–212.
 Horace, Odes III, 3.6, trans. by David West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 63.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 216.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 220. On human sacrifice see J. E. E. D. Acton, “Human Sacrifice,” Essays in Religion, Politics, and Morality: Selected Writings of Lord Acton, 3 vols. ed. J. Rufus Fears (Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1988), 3:395–442.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 220.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 221.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 222.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 223.
 Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, 393.
 The City of God, 18.12.
 The City of God, 18.13.
 First Apology, 21.
 Second Apology, 12.
 Discourse to the Greeks, 4.